The Biology of the Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus

References and Acknowledgements

Dedicated to my dear friend
Dr. Edward K. Wagner
(May 4, 1940 - January 21, 2006)
who was responsible for inspiring my fascination in the study of the biology of the viruses.


Demonstration of Coinfection with and Recombination by Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus and Maedi-Visna Virus in Naturally Infected Goats
Giuliano Pisoni,Giuseppe Bertoni, Maria Puricelli, Marina Maccalli, and Paolo Moroni
Journal of Virology, May 2007, p. 4948-4955, Vol. 81, No. 10

Direct Evidence for Natural Transmission of Small-Ruminant Lentiviruses of Subtype A4 from Goats to Sheep and Vice Versa
Cyril Shah, et. al.
Journal of Virology, July 2004, p. 7518-7522, Vol. 78, No. 14

Evidence for interference, coinfections, and intertypic virus enhancement of infection by ovine-caprine lentiviruses.
P E Jolly and O Narayan
J Virol. 1989 November; 63(11): 4682-4688

Diagnostic tests for small ruminant lentiviruses
D. de Andres, D. Klein, N.J. Watt, E. Berriatua, S. Torsteinsdottir, B.A. Blacklaws, G.D. Harkiss
Veterinary Microbiology 107 (2005) 49-62

Relative contribution of colostrum from Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) infected ewes to MVV-seroprevalence in lambs.
Alvarez V, Arranz J, Daltabuit-Test M, Leginagoikoa I, Juste RA, Amorena B, de Andrés D, Luján LL, Badiola JJ, Berriatua E.
Instituto Vasco de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario (NEIKER), Sanidad Animal, 48160-Derio, Vizcaya, Spain. Res Vet Sci. 2005 Jun;78(3):237-43

Lack of Functional Receptors Is the Only Barrier That Prevents Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus from Infecting Human Cells
Laila Mselli-Lakhal, et. al.
Journal of Virology, September 2000, p. 8343-8348, Vol. 74, No. 18

Variability and Immunogenicity of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus Surface Glycoprotein
S. Valas, C. Benoit, C. Baudry, G. Perrin, and R.Z. Mamoun
Journal of Virology, July 2000, p 6178-6185

Antibody Reactivity to the Immunodominant Epitopes of the Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus gp38 Transmembrane Protein Associates with the Development of Arthritis
G. Bertoni, et. al.
Journal of Virology, Nov. 1994, p. 7139-7147

B-cell epitopes of the envelope glycoprotein of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and antibody response in infected goats
G. Bertoni, et. al.
Journal of General Virology (2000), 81, 2929-2940

The illustration of the genome of CAEV was adapted from:
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Complex
G. Bertoni
In: Recent Advances in Goat Diseases, Tempesta M. (editor)
International Veterinary Information Service Ithaca NY
Jul 42, 2007

Basic Virology, Third Edition, 2008
Edward K. Wagner, Martinez J. Hewlett, David C. Bloom, and David Camerini
Karin Christensen, illustrator
Blackwell Publishing

Immunobiology, Third Edition, 1997
Charles A. Janeway, Jr. and Paul Travers
Garland Publishing Inc.